Συνθήκη Μη διασποράς πυρηνικών όπλων (αγγλικό κείμενο Συνθήκης)

Πολλά βιβλία των εκδόσεων Ποιότητα αναλύουν το πυρηνικό ζήτημα: J. Mearsheimer, Η τραγωδία της πολιτικής των μεγάλων δυνάμεων, Η. Bull, Η άναρχη κοινωνία, Κ. Waltz, Θεωρία διεθνούς πολιτικής και Άνθρωπος, κράτος, πόλεμος, Π. Ήφαιστος, O πόλεμος και τα αίτιά του και Η. Κουσκουβέλης, Αποτροπή και πυρηνική στρατηγική. Παραθέτουμε το αγγλικό κείμενο της συνθήκης του 1970. Σημειώνουμε ότι στην εισαγωγή γράφει: «(οι συμβαλλόμενοι) δηλώνουν την πρόθεσή τους να επιτύχουν το συντομότερο δυνατό την παύση της πυρηνικών εξοπλιστικών ανταγωνισμών και πάρουν δραστικά-αποτελεσματικά μέτρα προς την κατεύθυνση του πυρηνικού αφοπλισμού». Οι καθημερινές θέσεις και στάσεις των κρατών υποδηλώνουν τον χαρακτήρα του σύγχρονου διεθνούς συστήματος και την θέση των μέσων μαζικής καταστροφής στην διεθνή πολιτική των επερχόμενων δεκαετιών.

INFCIRC/140 – http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Treaties/npt.html

22 April 1970  International Atomic Energy Agency

TREATY ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS

Notification of the entry into force

By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depositary Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970. 2. The text of the Treaty, taken from a certified true copy provided by one of the Depositary Governments, is reproduced below for the convenience of all Members.

___________________________________________________________________

TREATY ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS

The States concluding this Treaty, hereinafter referred to as the “Parties to the Treaty”,

Considering the devastation that would be visited upon all mankind by a nuclear war and the

consequent need to make every effort to avert the danger of such a war and to take measures to

safeguard the security of peoples,

Believing that the proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously enhance the danger of

nuclear war,

In conformity with resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly calling for the

conclusion of an agreement on the prevention of wider dis semination of nuclear weapons,

Undertaking to co-operate in facilitating the application of International Atomic Energy

Agency safeguards on peaceful nuclear activities,

Expressing their support for research, development and other efforts to further the

application, within the framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards

system, of the principle of safeguarding effectively the flow of source and special fissionable

materials by use of instruments and other techniques at certain strategic points,

Affirming the principle that the benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear technology,

including any technological by-products which may be derived by nuclear-weapon States from

the development of nuclear explosive devices, should be available for peaceful purposes to all

Parties to the Treaty, whether nuclear-weapon or non-nuclear-weapon States,

Convinced that, in furtherance of this principle, all Parties to the Treaty are entitled to

participate in the fullest possible exchange of scientific information for, and to contribute alone

or in co-operation with other States to, the further development of the applications of atomic

energy for peaceful purposes,

Declaring their intention to achieve at the earliest possible date the cessation of the

nuclear arms race and to undertake effective measures in the direction of nuclear

disarmament, Urging the co-operation of all States in the attainment of this

objective

Recalling the determination expressed by the Parties to the 1963 Treaty banning nuclear

weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water in its Preamble to seek to

achieve the discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time and to continue

negotiations to this end,

Desiring to further the easing of international tension and the strengthening of trust between

States in order to facilitate the cessation of the manufacture of nuclear weapons, the liquidation

of all their existing stockpiles, and the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons

and the means of their delivery pursuant to a Treaty on general and complete disarmament

under strict and effective international control,

Recalling that, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, States must refrain in

their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or

political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the

United Nations, and that the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security

are to be promoted with the least diversion for armaments of the world’s human and economic

resources,

Have agreed as follows:

ARTICLE I

Each nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to transfer to any recipient

whatsoever nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or control over such weapons or

explosive devices directly, or indirectly; and not in any way to assist, encourage, or induce any

non-nuclear-weapon State to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other

nuclear explosive devices, or control over such weapons or explosive devices.

ARTICLE II

Each non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to receive the transfer

from any transferor whatsoever of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or of

control over such weapons or explosive devices directly, or indirectly; not to manufacture or

otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices; and not to seek or

receive any assistance in the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive

devices.

ARTICLE III

  1. Each Non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes to accept safeguards, as

set forth in an agreement to be negotiated and concluded with the International Atomic Energy

Agency in accordance with the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the

Agency’s safeguards system, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of its

obligations assumed under this Treaty with a view to preventing diversion of nuclear energy

from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Procedures for the

safeguards required by this Article shall be followed with respect to source or special

fissionable material whether it is being produced, processed or used in any principal nuclear

facility or is outside any such facility. The safeguards required by this Article shall be applied

on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within the territory

of such State, under its jurisdiction, or carried out under its control anywhere.

  1. Each State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to provide: (a) source or special fissionable

material, or (b) equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or

production of special fissionable material, to any non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful

purposes, unless the source or special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards

required by this Article.

  1. The safeguards required by this Article shall be implemented in a manner designed to

comply with Article IV of this Treaty, and to avoid hampering the economic or technological

development of the Parties or international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear

activities, including the international exchange of nuclear material and equipment for the

processing, use or production of nuclear material for peaceful purposes in accordance with the

provisions of this Article and the principle of safeguarding set forth in the Preamble of the

Treaty.

  1. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty shall conclude agreements with the

International Atomic Energy Agency to meet the requirements of this Article either individually

or together with other States in accordance with the Statute of the International Atomic Energy

Agency. Negotiation of such agreements shall commence within 180 days from the original

entry into force of this Treaty. For States depositing their instruments of ratification or

accession after the 180-day period, negotiation of such agreements shall commence not later

than the date of such deposit. Such agreements shall enter into force not later than eighteen

months after the date of initiation of negotiations.

ARTICLE IV

  1. Nothing in this Treaty shall be interpreted as affecting the inalienable right of all the

Parties to the Treaty to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful

purposes without discrimination and in conformity with Articles I and II of this Treaty.

  1. All the Parties to the Treaty undertake to facilitate, and have the right to participate in. the

fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information

for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Parties to the Treaty in a position to do so shall also cooperate

in contributing alone or together with other States or international organizations to the

further development of the applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, especially in

the territories of non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty, with due consideration for the

needs of the developing areas of the world.

ARTICLE V

Each Party to the Treaty undertakes to take appropriate measures to ensure that, in

accordance with this Treaty, under appropriate international observation and through

appropriate international procedures, potential benefits from any peaceful applications of

nuclear explosions will be made available to non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty on a

non-discriminatory basis and that the charge to such Parties for the explosive devices used will

be as low as possible and exclude any charge for research and development. Non-nuclearweapon

States Party to the Treaty shall be able to obtain such benefits, pursuant to a special

international agreement or agreements, through an appropriate international body with adequate

representation of non-nuclear-weapon States. Negotiations on this subject shall commence as

soon as possible after the Treaty enters into force. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the

Treaty so desiring may also obtain such benefits pursuant to bilateral agreements.

ARTICLE VI

Each of the Parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective

measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear

disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective

international control.

ARTICLE VII

Nothing in this Treaty affects the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in

order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories.

ARTICLE VIII

  1. Any Party to the Treaty may propose amendments to this Treaty. The text of any

proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Depositary Governments which shall circulate it

to all Parties to the Treaty. Thereupon, if requested to do so by one-third or more of the Parties

to the Treaty, the Depositary Governments shall convene a conference, to which they shall

invite all the Parties to the Treaty, to consider such an amendment.

  1. Any amendment to this Treaty must be approved by a majority of the votes of all the

Parties to the Treaty, including the votes of all nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty and all

other Parties which, on the date the amendment is circulated, are members of the Board of

Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The amendment shall enter into force

for each Party that deposits its instrument of ratification of the amendment upon the deposit of

such instruments of ratification by a majority of all the Parties, including the instruments of

ratification of all nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty and all other Parties which, on the

date the amendment is circulated, are members of the Board of Governors of the International

Atomic Energy Agency. Thereafter, it shall enter into force for any other Party upon the deposit

of its instrument of ratification of the amendment.

  1. Five years after the entry into force of this Treaty, a conference of Parties to the Treaty

shall be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in order to review the operation of this Treaty with a view

to assuring that the purposes of the Preamble and the provisions of the Treaty are being realised.

At intervals of five years thereafter. a majority of the Parties to the Treaty may obtain, by

submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary Governments, the convening of further

conferences with the same objective of reviewing the operation of the Treaty.

ARTICLE IX

  1. This Treaty shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign the

Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article may accede to it

at any time.

  1. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of ratification

and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United

States of America, which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments.

  1. This Treaty shall enter into force after its ratification by the States, the Governments of

which are designated Depositaries of the Treaty, and forty other States signatory to this Treaty

and the deposit of their instruments of ratification. For the purposes of this Treaty, a nuclearweapon

State is one which has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear

explosive device prior to 1 January, 1967.

  1. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the

entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their

instruments of ratification or accession.

  1. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of

the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or of accession,

the date of the entry into force of this Treaty, and the date of receipt of any requests for

convening a conference or other notices.

  1. This Treaty shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to Article 102 of

the Charter of the United Nations.

ARTICLE X

  1. Each Party shall in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to withdraw

from the Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events, related to the subject matter

of this Treaty, have jeopardized the supreme interests of its country. It shall give

notice of such withdrawal to all other Parties to the Treaty and to the United

Nations Security Council three months in advance. Such notice shall include a

statement of the extraordinary events it regards as having jeopardized its

supreme interests. (έμφαση δική μου)

  1. Twenty-five years after the entry into force of the Treaty, a conference shall be convened

to decide whether the Treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an

additional fixed period or periods. This decision shall be taken by a majority of the Parties to the

Treaty.

ARTICLE XI

This Treaty, the English, Russian, French, Spanish and Chinese texts of which are equally

authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified

copies of this Treaty shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments to the Governments of

the signatory and acceding States.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorised, have signed this Treaty.

DONE in triplicate, at the cities of London, Moscow and Washington, the first day of July,

one thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight.

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