Jules Dufour, USA Military bases (Η πλανητική στρατιωτική παρουσία των ΗΠΑ)

The Worldwide control of humanity’s economic, social and political activities is under the helm of U.S. corporate and military power. Underlying this process are various schemes of direct and indirect military intervention.

These U.S. sponsored strategies ultimately consist in a process of global subordination.

Where is the Threat?

The 2000 Global Report published in 1980 had outlined «the State of the World» by focusing on so-called «level of threats» which might negatively influence or undermine U.S. interests.

Twenty years later, U.S. strategists, in an attempt to justify their military interventions in different parts of the World, have conceptualized the greatest fraud in U.S. history, namely «the Global War on Terrorism» (GWOT). The latter, using a fabricated pretext constitutes a global war against all those who oppose U.S. hegemony.

A modern form of slavery, instrumented through militarization and the «free market» has unfolded.

Major elements of the conquest and world domination strategy by the U.S. refer to:

  1. the control of the world economy and its financial markets
  2. the taking over of all natural resources (primary resources and nonrenewable sources of energy). The latter constitute the cornerstone of U.S. power through the activities of its multinational corporations

Geopolitical Outreach – Network of Military Bases

The U.S. has established its control over 191 governments which are members of the United Nations.

The conquest, occupation and/or otherwise supervision of these various regions of the World is supported by an integrated network of military bases and installations which covers the entire Planet (Continents, Oceans and Outer Space). All this pertains to the workings of an extensive Empire, the exact dimensions of which are not always easy to ascertain.

Known and documented from information in the public domain including Annual Reports of the U.S. Congress, we have a fairly good understanding of the structure of U.S. military expenditure, the network of U.S. military bases and the shape of this U.S. military-strategic configuration in different regions of the World.

The objective of this article is to build a summary profile of the World network of military bases, which are under the jurisdiction and/or control of the U.S.. The spatial distribution of these military bases will be examined together with an analysis of the multibillion dollar annual cost of their activities.

In a second section of this article, Worldwide popular resistance movements directed against U.S. military bases and their various projects will be outlined.

In a further article we plan to analyze the military networks of other major nuclear superpowers including the United Kingdom, France and Russia.

I. The Military Bases

Military bases are conceived for training purposes, preparation and stockage of military equipment, used by national armies throughout the World. They are not very well known in view of the fact that they are not open to the public at large.

Even though they take on different shapes, according to the military function for which they were established; they can broadly be classified under four main categories :

a.Air Force Bases (see photos 1 and 2)

b.Army or Land Bases

c.Navy Bases

d.Communication and Spy Bases

Photo 1

Air Base of Diego Garcia located in the Indian Ocean

Image:Diego Garcia (satellite).jpg

Photo 2

Diego Garcia.

An Aerial View of two B-52 and six Kc-a135

II. More than 1000 U.S. Bases and/or Military Installations

The main sources of information on these military installations (e.g. C. Johnson, the NATO Watch Committee, the International Network for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases) reveal that the U.S. operates and/or controls between 700 and 800 military bases Worldwide.

In this regard, Hugh d’Andrade and Bob Wing’s 2002 Map 1 entitled «U.S. Military Troops and Bases around the World, The Cost of ‘Permanent War'», confirms the presence of U.S. military personnel in 156 countries.

The U.S. Military has bases in 63 countries. Brand new military bases have been built since September 11, 2001 in seven countries.

In total, there are 255,065 U.S. military personnel deployed Worldwide.

These facilities include a total of 845,441 different buildings and equipments. The underlying land surface is of the order of 30 million acres. According to Gelman, who examined 2005 official Pentagon data, the U.S. is thought to own a total of 737 bases in foreign lands.

Adding to the bases inside U.S. territory, the total land area occupied by U.S. military bases domestically within the U.S. and internationally is of the order of 2,202,735 hectares, which makes the Pentagon one of the largest landowners worldwide (Gelman, J., 2007).

Map 1

U.S. Military Troops and Bases around the World.

The Cost of «Permanent War» and Some Comparative Data

Map 2

The American Military Bases Around the World (2001-2003)

Source : http://www.nobases.org

Map 3

U.S. Military Bases

The Map of the World Network «No Bases» (Map 3) reveals the following:

Based on a selective examination of military bases in North America, Latin America, Western Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Japan, several of these military bases are being used for intelligence purposes. New selected sites are Spy Bases and Satellite-related Spy Bases.

The Surface of the Earth is Structured as a Wide Battlefield

These military bases and installations of various kinds are distributed according to a Command structure divided up into five spatial units and four unified Combatant Commands (Map 4).

Each unit is under the Command of a General.

The Earth surface is being conceived as a wide battlefield which can be patrolled or steadfastly supervised from the Bases.

Map 4

The World and Territories Under the Responsibility of a Combatant Command or Under a Command Structure

Map-the World With Commander’ Area of Responsibility

Territories under a Command are:

  • the Northern Command (NORTHCOM) (Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado)
  • the Pacific Command (Honolulu, Hawaii)
  • the Southern Command (Miami, Florida – Map 5)
  • the Central Command (CENTCOM) (MacDill Air Force Base, Florida)
  • the European Command (Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany)
  • the Joint Forces Command (Norfolk, Virginia)
  • the Special Operations Command (MacDill Air Force Base, Florida)
  • the Transportation Command (Scott Air Force Base, Illinois)
  • the Strategic Command (STRATCOM) (Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska)

Map 5

The Southern Command

NATO Military Bases

The Atlantic Alliance (NATO) has its own Network of military bases, thirty in total.

The latter are primarily located in Western Europe:

  • Whiteman, U.S.A., Fairford
  • Lakenheath and Mildenhall in United Kingdom
  • Eindhoven in Netherlands
  • Brüggen, Geilenkirchen, Landsberg, Ramstein, Spangdahlem, Rhein-Main in Germany
  • Istres and Avord in France
  • Morón de la Frontera and Rota in Spain
  • Brescia, Vicenza, Piacenza, Aviano, Istrana, Trapani, Ancora, Pratica di Mare, Amendola, Sigonella, Gioia dell Colle, Grazzanise and Brindisi in Italy
  • Tirana in Albania
  • Incirlik in Turkey
  • Eskan Village in Soudi Arabia
  • Ali al Salem in Koweit (http://www.terra.es/actualidad/articulo/html/act52501.htm)

III.  The Global Deployment of U.S. Military Personnel

There are 6000 military bases and/or military warehouses located in the U.S. (See Wikipedia, February 2007).

Total Military Personnel is of the order of 1,4 million of which 1,168,195 are in the U.S. and U.S. overseas territories.

Taking figures from the same source, there are 325,000 U.S. military personnel in foreign countries:

  • 800 in Africa
  • 97,000 in Asia (excluding the Middle East and Central Asia)
  • 40,258 in South Korea
  • 40,045 in Japan
  • 491 at the Diego Garcia Base in the Indian Ocean
  • 100 in the Philippines, 196 in Singapore
  • 113 in Thailand
  • 200 in Australia
  • 16,601 Afloat

In Europe, there are 116,000 U.S. military personnel including 75,603 who are stationed in Germany.

In Central Asia about 1,000 are stationed at the Ganci (Manas) Air Base in Kyrgyzstan and 38 are located at Kritsanisi, in Georgia, with a mission to train Georgian soldiers.

In the Middle East (excluding the Iraq war theater) there are 6,000 U.S. military personnel, 3,432 of whom are in Qatar and 1,496 in Bahrain.

In the Western Hemisphere, excluding the U.S. and U.S. territories, there are 700 military personnel in Guantanamo, 413 in Honduras and 147 in Canada.

Map 3 provides information regarding military personnel on duty, based on a regional categorization (broad regions of the world). The total number of military personnel at home in the U.S. and/or in U.S. Territories is 1,139,034.

There are 1,825 in Europe 114, 660, 682 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 4, 274 in the Middle East and Southern Asia, 143 in the Ex-USSR, and 89,846 in the Pacific.

IV. The Operational Cost of the Worldwide Military Network

U.S. defense spending (excluding the costs of the Iraq war) have increased from 404 in 2001 to 626 billion dollars in 2007 according to data from the Washington based Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation.

U.S. defense spending is expected to reach 640 billion dollars in 2008. (Figure 1 and http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/archives/002244.php).

These 2006 expenses correspond to 3.7% of the U.S. GDP and $935.64 per capita (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_of-the_United_States).

Figure 1

U.S. Military Expenditures since 1998

At 2007 prices, 1998 military spending was $364.35bn. 2008’s is approximately $643.9bn  

According to Fig 1, the 396 billion dollars military budget proposed in 2003 has in fact reached 417.4 billion dollars, a 73% increase compared to 2000 (289 billion dollars). This outlay for 2003 was more than half of the total of the U.S. discretionary budget.

Since 2003, these military expenditures have to be added to those of the Iraq war and occupation The latter reached in March 2007, according to the National Priorities Project, a cumulative total of 413 billion dollars.

(http://www.janes.com/defence/news/jdi/jdi050504_1_n.shtml, http://nationalpriorities.org/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=182).

Estimates of the Defense Department budget needs, made public in 2006 in the DoD Green Book for FY 2007 are of the order of 440 billion dollars. (http://www.dod.mil/comptroller/defbudget/fy2007/index.html)

Military and other staff required numbered 1,332,300. But those figures do not include the money required for the «Global World on Terrorism» (GWOT). In other words, these figures largely pertain to the regular Defense budget.

A Goldstein of the Washington Post, within the framework of an article on the aspects of the National 2007 budget titled «2007 Budget Favors Defense», wrote about this topic:

«Overall, the budget for the 2007 fiscal year would further reshape the government in the way the administration has been striving to during the past half-decade: building up military capacity and defenses against terrorist threats on U.S. soil, while restraining expenditures for many domestic areas, from education programs to train service»(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/04/AR2006020401179.html)

V. U.S. Military Bases to Protect Strategic Energy Resources

In the wake of 9/11, Washington initiated its «Global War on Terrorism» (GWOT), first in Afghanistan and then in Iraq.

Other countries, which were not faithfully obeying Washington’s directives including Iran, North Korea, Syria and Venezuela have been earmarked for possible U.S. military intervention.

Washington keeps a close eye on countries opposed to U.S. corporate control over their resources. Washington also targets countries where there are popular resistance movements directed against U.S. interests, particularly in South America.

In this context, President Bush made a quick tour to Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico «to promote democracy and trade» but also with a view to ultimately curbing and restraining popular dissent to the U.S. interests in the region. (http://www.voanews.com/spanish/2007-03-08-voa1.cfm)

The same broad approach is being applied in Central Asia.

According to Iraklis Tsavdaridis, Secretary of the World Peace Council (WPC):

«The establishment of U.S. military bases should not of course be seen simply in terms of direct military ends. They are always used to promote the economic and political objectives of U.S. capitalism.

For example, U.S. corporations and the U.S. government have been eager for some time to build a secure corridor for U.S..-controlled oil and natural gas pipelines from the Caspian Sea in Central Asia through Afghanistan and Pakistan to the Arabian Sea.

This region -has more than 6 percent of the world’s proven oil reserves and almost 40 percent of its gas reserves. The war in Afghanistan and the creation of U.S. military Bases in Central Asia are viewed as a key opportunity to make such pipelines a reality.»

(http://stopusa.be/campaigns/texte.php?section=FABN&langue=3&id=24157).

The U.S.. are at War in Afghanistan and Iraq. They pursue these military operations until they reach their objective which they call «VICTORY».

According to Wikipedia, American troops fighting in these countries number 190,000.

The «Enduring Freedom» Operation in Iraq alone has almost 200,000 military personnel, including 26,000 from other countries participating to the U.S. sponsored «Mission».

About 20,000 more could join other contingents in the next few months.

In Afghanistan, a total of 25,000 soldiers participate to the operation (Map 6 and Map 7).

Map 6

Petroleum and International Theatre of War in the Middle East and Central Asia

Source : Eric Waddell, The Battle for Oil, Global Research, 2003  

Map 7

American Bases Located in Central Asia

The Centro Asia Ring

VI. Military Bases Used for the Control of Strategic Renewable Resources

U.S. Military Bases in foreign countries, are mainly located in Western Europe:

  • 26 of them are in Germany
  • 8 in Great Britain
  • 8 in Italy

There are nine military installations in Japan (Wikepedia).

In the last few years, in the context of the GWOT, the U.S. has built 14 new bases in and around the Persian Gulf.

It is also involved in construction and/or or reinforcement of 20 bases (106 structured units as a whole) in Iraq, with costs of the order of 1.1 billion dollars in that country alone (Varea, 2007) and the use of about ten bases in Central Asia.

The U.S. has also undertaken continued negotiations with several countries to install, buy, enlarge or rent an additional number of military bases.

The latter pertain inter alia to installations in Morocco, Algeria, Mali, Ghana, Brazil and Australia (See Nicholson, B., 2007), Poland, Czech Republic (Traynor, I., 2007), Ouzbekistan, Tadjikistan, Kirghizstan, Italy (Jucca, L., 2007) and France.

Washington has signed an agreement to build a military base in Djibouti (Manfredi, E., 2007). All these initiatives are a part of an overall plan to install a series of military bases geographically located in a West-East corridor extending from Colombia in South America, to North Africa, the Near East, Central Asia and as far as the Philippines (Johnson, C., 2004).

The U.S. bases in South American are related to the control and access to the extensive natural biological, mineral and water resources resources of the Amazon Basin. (Delgado Jara, D., 2006 and Maps 9 and 10).

Map 8

Oil Fields in Latin America

Source : http://web.archive.org/web/20040619050211/http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

Map 9

The Biological Wealth of Latin America

Source: http://web.archive.org/web/20040619050211/http://www.visionesalternativas.com/

Map 10

Freshwater Resources in Latin America

Source : http://web.archive.org/web/20040619050211/http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

VII. Resistance Movements

The network of U.S. military bases is strategic, located in proximity of traditional strategic resources including nonrenewable sources of energy. This military presence has brought about political opposition and resistance from progressive movements and antiwar activists.

Demonstrations directed against U.S. military presence has developed in Spain, Ecuador, Italy, Paraguay, Uzbekistan, Bulgaria and in many other countries. Moreover, other long-termer resistance movements directed against U.S. military presence have continued in South Korea, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, Cuba, Europe, Japan and other locations.

The Worldwide resistance to U.S. foreign military bases has grown during the last few years. We are dealing with an International Network for the Abolition of U.S. Military Bases.

Such networks’ objective is to broadly pursue disarmament, demilitarization processes Worldwide as well as dismantle U.S. military bases in foreign countries.

The NO BASES Network organizes educational campaigns to sensitize public opinion. It also works to rehabilitate abandoned military sites, as in the case of Western Europe.

These campaigns, until 2004, had a local and national impact.

The network is now in a position to reach people Worldwide.

The network itself underscores that «much can be gained from greater and deeper linkages among local and national campaigns and movements across the globe. Local groups around the world can learn and benefit from sharing information, experiences, and strategies with each other»

(http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en)

«The realization that one is not alone in the struggle against foreign bases is profoundly empowering and motivating. Globally coordinated actions and campaigns can highlight the reach and scale of the resistance to foreign military presence around the world.

With the trend of rising miniaturization and resort to the use of force around the world, there is now an urgent and compelling need to establish and strengthen an international network of campaigners, organizations, and movements working with a special and strategic focus on foreign military presence and ultimately, working towards a lasting and just system of peace»

(http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en )

The Afghanistan and Iraq wars have, in this regard, created a favorable momentum, which has contributed to the reinforcement of the movement to close down U.S. military bases in foreign countries:

«At the time of an International anti-war meeting held in Jakarta in May 2003, a few weeks after the start of the Iraq invasion, a global anti-military Bases campaign has been proposed as an action to priorize among global anti-war, justice and solidarity movements» (http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en).

Since then, the campaign has acquired greater recognition.

E-mail lists have been compiled (nousbases@lists.riseup.net and nousbases-info@lists.riseup.net) that permit the diffusion of the movement members experiences and information and discussion exchanges. That list now groups 300 people and organizations from 48 countries.

A Web site permits also to adequately inform all Network members. Many rubrics provide highly valuable information on ongoing activities around the World. http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en

In addition, the Network is more and more active and participates in different activities. At the World Social Forums it organized various conferences and colloquia. It was present at the European Social Forum held in Paris in 2003 and in London in 2004 as well as at the the America’s Social Forum in Ecuador in 2004, and at the Mediterranean Social Forum in Spain in 2005.

One of the major gatherings, which was held in Mumbai, India, in 2004, was within the framework of the World Social Forum. More than 125 participants from 34 countries defined the foundations of a coordinated global campaign.

Action priorities were identified, such as the determination of a global day of action aiming at underscoring major issues stemming from the existence of U.S. military bases. The Network also held four discussion sessions at the Porto Alegre Social Forum in 2005. One of those pertained to the financing of the Network’s activities.

It is important to recall that the Network belongs to the Global Peace Movement.

Justice and Peace organizations have become more sensitized on what was at stake regarding U.S. military bases.

Map 11

Social and Resistence Movements in Latin America

Source : http://web.archive.org/web/20040619050211/http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

The Quito and Manta International Conference

Ecuador, March 2007

A Network World Conference for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases was held at Quito and at Manta, Ecuador, from March 5 to 9, 2007. (click here, here and here)

The objective of the Conference was to underscore the political, social, environmental and economic impacts of U.S. military bases, to make known the principles of the various Anti-Bases movements and to formally build the Network, its strategies, structure and Action Plans.

The main objectives of the Conference were the following:

  • Analyze the role of Foreign Military Bases and other features of military presence associated to the global dominance strategy and their impacts upon population and environment
  • Share experiences and reinforce the built solidarity resulting from the resistance battles against Foreign military Bases around the World
  • Reach a consensus on objectives mechanisms, on action plans, on coordination, on communication and on decision making of a Global Network for the abolition of all Foreign military Bases and of all other expressions of military presence
  • Establish global action plans to fight and reinforce the resistance of local people and ensure that these actions are being coordinated at the international level.

Conclusion

This article has focused on the Worldwide development of U.S. military power.

The U.S. tends to view the Earth surface as a vast territory to conquer, occupy and exploit. The fact that the U.S. Military splits the World up into geographic command units vividly illustrates this underlying geopolitical reality.

Humanity is being controlled and enslaved by this Network of U.S. military bases.

The ongoing re-deployment of U.S. troops and military bases has to be analyzed in a thorough manner if we wish to understand the nature of U.S. interventionism in different regions of the World.

This militarization process is characterized by armed aggression and warfare, as well as interventions called «cooperation agreements».

The latter reaffirmed America’s economic design design in the areas of trade and investment practices. Economic development is ensured through the miniaturization or the control of governments and organizations. Vast resources are thereby expended and wasted in order to allow such control to be effective, particularly in regions which have a strategic potential in terms of wealth and resources and which are being used to consolidate the Empire’s structures and functions.

The setting up of the International Network for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases turns out to be an extraordinary means to oppose the miniaturization process of the Planet.

Such Network is indispensable and its growth depends on a commitment of all the People of the World. It will be extremely difficult to mobilize them, but the ties built up by the Network among its constituent resistance movements are a positive element, which is ultimately conducive to more cohesive and coordinated battle at the World level.

The Final Declaration of the Second International Conference against Foreign Military Bases which was held in Havana in November 2005 and was endorsed by delegates from 22 countries identifies most of the major issues, which confront mankind. This Declaration constitutes a major peace initiative.

It establishes international solidarity in the process of disarmament.

References

COMITÉ DE SURVEILLANCE OTAN. 2005. Las bases militares : un aspecto de la estrategia global de la OTAN. Intervencion del Comité Surveillance Otan en la Conferencia Internacional realizada en La Habana 7-11.11.2005. 9 pages.

DELGADO JARA, Diego. 2006. Bases de Manta, Plan Colombia y dominio de la Amazonia. Militarizacion de la Hegemonia de EE. UU. En América latina. 17 pages.

EQUIPO DE COMUNICACIÓN CONFERENCIA NO BASES. 2007. La gente del mundo no quiere bases militares extranjeras.

GELMAN, J. 2007. Terratenientes. Rebelion. 26 de Febrero de 2007, http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id-47353

Ghana to host U.S. Military Base? February 26, 2006.

JOHNSON, C., America’s Empire of Bases. January 2004.

JOHNSON, C. America’s Empire of Bases. Janvier 2004 .

JOHNSON, C. 2005. The Sorrows of Empire. Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic. Henry Holt, April 2005, Paperback. 389 pages.

JOHNSON, C., 2007.. 737 U.S. Military Bases = Global Empire. February 19, 2007

JUCCA, L., 2007. Italians protest over U.S. base expansion. Sat Feb 17, 2007.

MANFREDI, E. 2007. Djibouti : Hôtel Corne d’Afrique, grande base américaine. Le GRAND SOIR.info. Édition du 23 mars 2007.

NEW INTERNATIONALIST. 2004. The Bases of Resistance, December 2004, Issue 374.

NICHOLSON, B. 2007. Secret New Us Spy base to Get Green Light. February 15, 2 007.

TRAYNOR, I. 2007. U.S. EXPANDS, Builds New Military Bases in Europe. The Guardian, anuary 22, 2007.

TSAVDARIDIS, I., 2005. Military Bases around the world and in Europe – the role of the USA and NATO. Novembre 2005. Stop USA / STOP United States of Agression.

VAREA, C., Las bases Militares de EEUU en Iraq. 4 mai 2006. Nodo50.

Web Sites

An Internet Guide to United States Military Bases Around the World: http://www.libsci.sc.edu/bob/class/clis734/webguides/milbase.htm

APPEL A UN RASSEMBLEMENT INTERNATIONAL en Mars 2007, Équateur, Pour l’abolition de toutes les bases militaires

Bases y Ejercicios Militares de EE.UU. El Comando Sur.

BUILDING A GLOBAL ANTI-MILITARY BASES MOVEMENT

Campana. Un mundo sin bases militares . Asemblea de Organizaciones y Movimientos contra la guerra, la OTAN y el Neoliberalismo (Madrid), Nodo50.

Challenges to the U.S. Empire, http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/challenges/challengesindex.htm.

Washington veut installer une base militaire en Algérie. Le Quotidien d’Oran, 20 juillet 2003.

Empire? http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/index.htm

International Conference against Foreign Military Bases. Final Declaration.

[Fsmed-general] for all that are against foreign military bases: http://www.grups.pangea.org/pipermail/fsmed-general/Week-of-Mon-20060206/001002.html

FUENTES DE AGUA EN AMERICA LATINA

http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

Abdulhafeth Khrisat, Impérialisme américain et politique militaire, , Université Mu’tah

Interview with Chalmers Johnson, Part 1. An Empire of More Than 725 Military Bases.

Liste des bases militaires américaines dans le monde.

Major Military Bases World-Wide, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/sites.htm

Military Bases Around The World, http://www.fsmitha.com/com/bases.htm

Military Bases around the world and in Europe – the role of the USA and NATO , Iraklis Tsavdaridis, Secretary of the World Peace Council (WPC) 8th November 2005, From the Greek Committee for International Detente and Peace (EEDYE), Presented on November 8, 2005 at the International Conference on Foreign Military Bases in Havana/Cuba organized by MOVPAZ :

http://stopusa.be/campaigns/texte.php?section=FABN&langue=3&id=24157

Military of the United States : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_armed_forces

MOVIMIENTOS SOCIALES DE RESISTENCIA EN AMÉRICA LATINA

No a la instalacion de una base de la OTAN en Zaragoza : http://www.ecologistasenaccion.org/article.php3?id_article=6261

OTAN – Le grand jeu des bases militaires en terre européenne : http://www.mondialisation.ca/index.php?context=viewArticle&code=DIN20060509&articleId=2414

Protestas contra bases militares de EEUU en Espana : http://spanish.peopledaily.com.cn/spanish/200104/02/sp20010402_46341.html

RIQUEZA DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD EN AMÉRICA LATINA

U.S. Military Troops and Bases Around the World : http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/intervention/2003/0710imperialmap.htm

U.S. Military Troops and Bases Around the World /united for peace & justice: http://www.unitedforpeace.org/article.php?id=884

U.S. Military Expansion and Intervention : http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/intervention/index.htm

YACIMIENTOS PETROLEROS EN AMÉRICA LATINA : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapapetrol.htm

Πηγή: https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sociopol_globalmilitarism58.htm

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